Sampling Meaning and Types in Research



Sampling Meaning and Types are illustrated below-

Meaning of sampling / Definition of Sampling

The process of selecting a number of individuals for a study in such a way that the individuals represent the larger group from which they were selected.
Such as, Michael is a Teacher who is interested in studying how much stress college students face during finals. He works at a college, so she is planning to send out a survey around finals time and ask some students to rank on a scale of 1 to 5 how stressed out they are.

But which students should he survey? ,or
All of the students at the college?, or
Only the students in any particular department? ,or
Only freshmen?
There are a lot of possibilities for Michael's sample. The sample of a study is simply the participants in a study.
In Michael's case, his sample will be the students who fill out his survey.

A sample is “a smaller (but hopefully representative) collection of units from a population used to determine truths about that population” (Field, 2005).

There are two types of sampling methods:

Probability sampling involves random selection, allowing you to make statistical inferences about the whole group.
Non-probability sampling involves non-random selection based on convenience or other criteria, allowing you to easily collect initial data.

Probability sampling method

Probability sampling means that every member of the population has a chance of being selected. If you want to produce results that are representative of the whole population, you need to use a probability sampling technique.

There are four main types of probability sample.

1. Simple random sampling
2. Systematic sampling
3. Stratified sampling
4. Cluster sampling

1. Simple random sampling
In a simple random sample, every member of the population has an equal chance of being selected. Your sampling frame should include the whole population.

To conduct this type of sampling, you can use tools like random number generators or other techniques that are based entirely on chance.

Example
You want to select a simple random sample of 100 employees of Company X. You assign a number to every employee in the company database from 1 to 1000, and use a random number generator to select 100 numbers.

2. Systematic sampling
Systematic sampling is similar to simple random sampling, but it is usually slightly easier to conduct. Every member of the population is listed with a number, but instead of randomly generating numbers, individuals are chosen at regular intervals.

Example
All employees of the company are listed in alphabetical order. From the first 10 numbers, you randomly select a starting point: number 2. From number 2 onwards, every 3rd person on the list is selected (2, 5, 8, 11, and so on), and you end up with a sample of 100 people.

If you use this technique, it is important to make sure that there is no hidden pattern in the list that might skew the sample. For example, if the HR database groups employees by team, and team members are listed in order of seniority, there is a risk that your interval might skip over people in junior roles, resulting in a sample that is skewed towards senior employees.

3. Stratified sampling
This sampling method is appropriate when the population has mixed characteristics, and you want to ensure that every characteristic is proportionally represented in the sample.

You divide the population into subgroups (called strata) based on the relevant characteristic (e.g. gender, age range, income bracket, job role).

From the overall proportions of the population, you calculate how many people should be sampled from each subgroup. Then you use random or systematic sampling to select a sample from each subgroup.

Example
The company has 800 female employees and 200 male employees. You want to ensure that the sample reflects the gender balance of the company, so you sort the population into two strata based on gender. Then you use random sampling on each group, selecting 80 women and 20 men, which gives you a representative sample of 100 people.

4. Cluster sampling
Cluster sampling also involves dividing the population into subgroups, but each subgroup should have similar characteristics to the whole sample. Instead of sampling individuals from each subgroup, you randomly select entire subgroups.

If it is practically possible, you might include every individual from each sampled cluster. If the clusters themselves are large, you can also sample individuals from within each cluster using one of the techniques above.

This method is good for dealing with large and dispersed populations, but there is more risk of error in the sample, as there could be substantial differences between clusters. It’s difficult to guarantee that the sampled clusters are really representative of the whole population.



Example

The company has offices in 10 cities across the country (all with roughly the same number of employees in similar roles). You don’t have the capacity to travel to every office to collect your data, so you use random sampling to select 3 offices – these are your clusters.



Non-probability sampling methods

In a non-probability sample, individuals are selected based on non-random criteria, and not every individual has a chance of being included. This type of sample is easier and cheaper to access, but you can’t use it to make valid statistical inferences about the whole population.

Non-probability sampling techniques are often appropriate for exploratory and qualitative research. In these types of research, the aim is not to test a hypothesis about a broad population, but to develop an initial understanding of a small or under-researched population.

There are four main types of probability sample.
1. Convenience sampling
2. Voluntary response sampling
3. Purposive sampling
4. Snowball sampling


1. Convenience sampling
A convenience sample simply includes the individuals who happen to be most accessible to the researcher.

This is an easy and inexpensive way to gather initial data, but there is no way to tell if the sample is representative of the population, so it can’t produce generalizable results.

Example
You are researching opinions about student support services in your university, so after each of your classes, you ask your fellow students to complete a survey on the topic. This is a convenient way to gather data, but as you only surveyed students taking the same classes as you at the same level, the sample is not representative of all the students at your university.

2. Voluntary response sampling
Similar to a convenience sample, a voluntary response sample is mainly based on ease of access. Instead of the researcher choosing participants and directly contacting them, people volunteer themselves (e.g. by responding to a public online survey).

Voluntary response samples are always at least somewhat biased, as some people will inherently be more likely to volunteer than others.

Example
You send out the survey to all students at your university and a lot of students decide to complete it. This can certainly give you some insight into the topic, but the people who responded are more likely to be those who have strong opinions about the student support services, so you can’t be sure that their opinions are representative of all students.

3. Purposive sampling
This type of sampling involves the researcher using their judgement to select a sample that is most useful to the purposes of the research.

It is often used in qualitative research, where the researcher wants to gain detailed knowledge about a specific phenomenon rather than make statistical inferences. An effective purposive sample must have clear criteria and rationale for inclusion.

Example
You want to know more about the opinions and experiences of disabled students at your university, so you purposefully select a number of students with different support needs in order to gather a varied range of data on their experiences with student services.

4. Snowball sampling
If the population is hard to access, snowball sampling can be used to recruit participants via other participants. The number of people you have access to “snowballs” as you get in contact with more people.

Example
You are researching experiences of homelessness in your city. Since there is no list of all homeless people in the city, probability sampling isn’t possible. You meet one person who agrees to participate in the research, and she puts you in contact with other homeless people that she knows in the area.

Post a comment

0 Comments