Job Analysis : HRM Basic


Job Analysis

What is job analysis?

Job analysis is the process through which one determine the duties of the company’s positions and the characteristics of the people to hire for them.
Job analysis produces information for writing job descriptions and job specifications.

Job descriptions
  - job description is a list of a job’s duties, responsibilities, reporting relationships, working conditions, and supervisory responsibilities- one product of a job analysis. 



Job specifications
   - job specifications is a list of job’s “human requirements,” that is, the requisite education, skills, personality, and so on- another product of job analysis.


The supervisors or human resources specialist normally collect one or more of the following types of information via job analysis:


Work activities: information about the job’s actual work activities, such as cleaning, selling, teaching, or painting. This list may also include how, why, and when the worker performs each activity.

Human behaviors: information about human behaviors the job requires, like sensing, communicating, lifting weights, or walking long distances.

Machines, tools, equipment, and work aid: information regarding tools used, materials processed, knowledge dealt with or applied, and services rendered.


Performance standards: information about the job’s performance standards.

Job context: information about such matters as physical working conditions, work schedule, incentives, and, for instance, the number of people with whom the employee would normally interact.

Human requirements: information such as knowledge or skills(education, training, work experience) and required personal attributes(aptitudes, personality,).

Job analysis information hierarchy/job terminology.
- Elements, Task, Duty, Position, Job, Job family, Occupation, Career.

Uses Of Job Analysis Information

Why job analysis?

Job analysis is vital in effective HR planning to ensure the best fit between workers & work requirements, and the individual & organizational needs:
1.Job analysis ensures that the effects of recent changes have been included into job descriptions.

2.Remove redundancies &/or develop or expand jobs/work activities for the most effective & efficient ways to
         - organize work
         - specify core work activities and
         - properly structure the organization based on key strategic business goals.

3.      Compare & contrast the degree of similarity or difference between geographically divers operating units and personnel, thereby facilitating more effective restructure programs. 

Steps In Doing Job Analysis

1.Decide how you’ll use the information.
2.Review relevant background information.
3.Select representative positions.
4.Actually analyze the job.
5.Verify the job analysis information.
6.Develop a job description and job specification.


Methods of collecting job analysis information

There are many ways to collect job information. The basic rule is to use those that best fit your purposes.
Purposes before actually analyzing the job, keep several things in mind.
-Make the job analysis a joint effort by humane resources manager, the worker, and the worker’s supervisor.
-Make sure the questions and the process are both clear to the employees.

-Use several job analysis methods. For example, a questionnaire might miss a task the worker performs just occasionally. Therefore it’s prudent to follow up the questionnaire with short interview.

Methods of job analysis

-Interview
-Questionnaire
-Observation
-Participant diary/logs
-Technical conference

-Quantitative Job Analysis Techniques
-Functional Job Analysis
-Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ)


1. Job Description

Job Description is a written statement of what job holder actually does, how he or she does it, and what the job’s working conditions. 




- Sample Job Description
Job Description: Training and Development Specialist
- Job Summary
Training and development specialists perform training activities for supervisors, managers, and staffs to improve effectiveness and productivity. They work under general supervision from higher level training & development professionals

- Job Duties
1. recommends, plans, and implements training seminars & workshops
2. Evaluates training needs of the employees by personal conducting interviews, questionnaires, and statistical studies
3. Develops instructional materials for seminars & workshops
4. Counsels supervisors & employees on policies and rules
5. Performs related duties as assigned

- Worker Specifications
1.MBA in Human Resource Management
2. Two years of professional work experience in the training and development area.

2. Job Specifications 

Job specification is a Statement indicating the minimum acceptable qualifications incumbent must process to successfully perform the essential elements of their jobs.


Job analysis in a Worker-Empowered World
-Job enlargement
-Job rotation
-Job enrichment

Competency Based Job Analysis

Competencies: Demonstrable characteristics of a person that enable performance of a job.

Reasons for Competency Based Job Analysis
To support a high performance work system(HPWS).
To support the performance management process in fostering, measuring, and rewarding;
General competencies
Leadership competencies
Technical competencies

How to Write Job Competencies Based Job Descriptions
Competencies:
Interview job incumbents and their supervisors
Ask open ended questions about job responsivilities and activities.
Identify critical incidents that pinpoint success on the job.

Use off the shelf competencies data banks
Potential Problem With Job Analysis
1.Top Management support is missing.
2.Only a single means & source are used for gathering data.
3.The supervisors & the jobholder do not participate in the design of the job analysis procedure.
4.No training or motivation exists for jobholders.
5.Employees are not allowed sufficient time to complete the analysis.
6.Activities may be distorted.


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