(a) Trend and ratio analysis.
(b) Growth rate.
(c) Time value of money.
(d) Inflation adjustments.
(e) Forecasting techniques.
(f) Cash debt.
(g) Investments.

Trend and ratio analysis:
The analysis of a financial ratio by comparing it to the same ratio in previous years. For example, a person may compare earnings in November 2009 to earnings in November 2008, November 2007 and November 2006. This helps analyze whether a company's financial state is becoming more or less healthy over time.

Growth rates:
Growth rates refer to the percentage change of a specific variable within a specific time period, given a certain context. For investors, growth rates typically represent the compounded annualized rate of growth of a company's revenues, earnings, dividends and even macro concepts such as GDP and the economy as a whole..
PR = 280,000−250,0002,50,000𝑥 10010
PR = 30,0002,50,000𝑥10010
PR = 1210
PR = 1.2%

Time value of money:
The time value of money (TVM) is the idea that money available at the present time is worth more than the same amount in the future due to its potential earning capacity. This core principle of finance holds that, provided money can earn interest, any amount of money is worth more the sooner it is received. TVM is also referred to as present discounted value.
Basic Time Value of Money Formula and Example Depending on the exact situation in question, the TVM formula may change slightly. For example, in the case of annuity or perpetuity payments, the generalized formula has additional or less factors. But in general, the most fundamental TVM formula takes into account the following variables: FV = Future value of money PV = Present value of money i = interest rate n = number of compounding periods per year t = number of years Based on these variables, the formula for TVM is: FV = PV x (1 + (i / n)) ^ (n x t) For example, assume a sum of $10,000 is invested for one year at 10% interest. The future value of that money is: FV = $10,000 x (1 + (10% / 1) ^ (1 x 1) = $11,000 The formula can also be rearranged to find the value of the future sum in present day dollars. For example, the value of $5,000 one year from today, compounded at 7% interest, is: PV = $5,000 / (1 + (7% / 1) ^ (1 x 1) = $4,673

Inflation adjustment:
INFLATION ADJUSTMENT is whenever any figure is adjusted for inflation/deflation. It simply means that all fluctuations in price (upward or downward) that are directly attributable to inflation/deflation are reflected into that figure through either adding or subtracting the amount that is directly caused by inflation/deflation.

Forecasting techniques: Primary forecasting techniques help organizations plan for the future. Some are based on subjective criteria and often amount to little more than wild guesses or wishful thinking. Others are based on measurable, historical quantitative data and are given more credence by outside parties, such as analysts and potential investors. While no forecasting tool can predict the future with complete certainty, they remain essential in estimating an organization's forward prospects.
Delphi Technique: The RAND Corporation developed the Delphi Technique in the late 1960s. In the Delphi Technique, a group of experts responds to a series of questionnaires. The experts are kept apart and unaware of each other. The results of the first questionnaire are compiled, and a second questionnaire based on the results of the first is presented to the experts, who are asked to reevaluate their responses to the first questionnaire. This questioning, compilation and requestioning continues until the researchers have a narrow range of opinions.

Scenario writing: In Scenario Writing, the forecaster generates different outcomes based on different starting criteria. The decision-maker then decides on the most likely outcome from the numerous scenarios presented. Scenario writing typically yields best, worst and middle options.
Subjective approach: Subjective forecasting allows forecasters to predict outcomes based on their subjective thoughts and feelings. Subjective forecasting uses brainstorming sessions to generate ideas and to solve problems casually, free from criticism and peer pressure. They are often used when time constraints prohibit objective forecasts. Subjective forecasts are subject to biases and should be viewed skeptically by decision-makers.

Time-Series forecasting: Time-series forecasting is a quantitative forecasting technique. It measures data gathered over time to identify trends. The data may be taken over any interval: hourly; daily; weekly; monthly; yearly; or longer. Trend, cyclical, seasonal and irregular components make up the time series. The trend component refers to the data's gradual shifting over time. It is often shown as an upward- or downward-sloping line to represent increasing or decreasing trends, respectively. Cyclical components lie above or below the trend line and repeat for a year or longer. The business cycle illustrates a cyclical component. Seasonal components are similar to cyclicals in their repetitive nature, but they occur in one-year periods. The annual increase in gas prices during the summer driving season and the corresponding decrease during the winter months is an example of a seasonal event. Irregular components happen randomly and cannot be predicted.

Cash debt:
A higher current cash debt coverage ratio indicates a better liquidity position. Generally a ratio of
1 : 1 is considered very comfortable because having a ratio of 1 : 1 means the business is able to pay all of its current liabilities from the cash flow of its own operations.

An investment is an asset or item that is purchased with the hope that it will generate income or will appreciate in the future. In an economic sense, an investment is the purchase of goods that are not consumed today but are used in the future to create wealth. In finance, an investment is a monetary asset purchased with the idea that the asset will provide income in the future or will be sold at a higher price for a profit.

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