Social Responsibility and Managerial Ethics
  1. What is social responsibility? What are the two views of social responsibility?
  2. Why  should  it important  for business  to behave socially responsible  manner?
  3. How to identify the key stakeholders of a particular company, how to engage stakeholders?
  4. How to implement csr, what to remember when implementing csr?
  5. Why its  necessary  for  companies to learn about csr activities?
  6. What  are the tools of comunicating corporate social. Activity?
  7. Define social  responsibility, social responsiveness and social oblization and contrast amoung them.
  8. The relationship between an organization's social involvement and its economic performance
  9. Pathways  for getting started in a career of corporate social responsibility
  10.  are there professional development opportunities for csr personnel related to aid and development work? Explain
  11. What do you mean by "greening of management " relate the approaches to being green to the concept of social obligation, social responsibility, and social responsiveness
  12. Explain the relationship of value based management
  13. What do you mean by ethics? What are the four views of ethics?
  14. what is code of ethics? How their effectiveness can be improved?
  15. Describe the importance roles managers play in encouraging ethical behavior

1.What is social responsibility? What are the two views of social responsibility?
social responsibility
            It is an ethical framework and suggests that an entity, be it an organization or individual, has an obligation to act for the welfare of society minutely. Social responsibility is a duty every individual has to perform so as to maintain a balance between the economy and the ecosystems.
It is the duty of an organization’s management towards the well-being and interest of the society in which it operates.
Examples: some abstract examples:

  • Donating to charities;
  • Making a special effort to employ veterans;
  • Directing research money at projects that will promote public health;
  • Recycling (especially where that’s not financially advantageous);
  • Reducing use of non-renewable fuels (especially where that’s not financially advantageous).
From google to ben & jerry’s, some of the world’s largest and most profitable corporations have integrated measures to promote good corporate citizenship into their mission statements and business models. And it is paying off.

The two views of social responsibility
The classical view:
The classical view holds that management's only social responsibility is to maximize profits.
Characteristics of the social view
★        Management's only social responsibility is to maximize profits by operating the business in the best interest of the stockholders
★         expanding the farmer's resource on doing "social good" unjustifiably increases cost that lower profit to the owners and raises prices to customers.
The socioeconomic view
It's the view that management's social responsibility goes beyond making profits to include protecting and improving social welfare
Characteristics  of socio economic view
★        Management's social responsibility goes beyond making profits to include improving social welfare.
★        Corporations are not independent entities responsible only to stockholders
★        Firms have a moral responsibility to larger society to become involved in socio, legal and political issues.
★        "to do the right thing" is the main theme of this view
2.Why  should  it important  for business  to behave socially responsible  manner???
The neccesity of behaving social responsible manner for the business is given bellow:
  • Social responsibility refers to dependence of business on society
  • It also ensures long term profit
  • It also ensures the freedom from the government control
  • It also provides customer's consciousness
  • Social responsibility also provides better social environment
  • It increases the public image
  • It ensures employee's satisfaction
  • Social responsibility increases survival and growth of the organization
3.How to identify the key stakeholders of a particular company, how to engage stakeholders.
Before identifying a key stakeholder we have to know what is stakeholder or who is stakeholder.
A person, group or organization that are directly or indirectly involved in an organizatiob such as creditors, directors, employees,government, supplier unions etc stakeholder identification is the process used to identify all stakeholders for a particular company. All stakeholder will not the same effect on a company nor will be affect in the same manner there are many ways to identify a stakeholder for a particular company. It can be methodical or logical. This may be done by looking at stakeholders organizationally, geographically or by involvement with company or company's outcome.
So how do you produce a shorter, more coherent list? Answer the following questions about each contender you’ve identified in your brainstorming session. They’ll help you direct your organization’s energy and resources to the right relationships and activities. The questions and examples are drawn fromexperience working with a large variety of organizations and management teams.
  1. Does the stakeholder have a fundamental impact on your organization’s performance? (required response: yes.)
Example: a manufacturer of trusses and frames for houses decided, on reflection, that a local council wasn’t a key stakeholder. Though the council set regulations that the company had to follow, those rules didn’t have much of an effect on sales or profits the way, for instance, customers did.
  1. Can you clearly identify what you want from the stakeholder? (required response: yes.)
Example: members of a law firm’s strategic-planning team knew they wanted revenue from clients, productivity and innovation from employees, and continued funding from partners — yet they couldn’t specify what they wanted from the community, so that relationship wasn’t deemed key.
  1. Is the relationship dynamic — that is, do you want it to grow? (required response: yes.)
Example: a company that ran 17 retirement villages had a dynamic, strategic relationship with current and potential residents.  It wanted increased occupancy and more fees for services used.  The company’s relationship with a university, by contrast, was static and operationally focused. It involved a fixed amount of research funding and co-branding each year.  That’s all that was needed. Though the co-branding generated broader awareness and may have indirectly yielded more residents and revenue, the university itself didn’t achieve key stakeholder status.
  1. Can you exist without or easily replace the stakeholder? (required response: no.)
Example: a professional services firm in hr that had taken out a loan initially listed the bank as a stakeholder. But ultimately, that relationship didn’t qualify as key, because the loan could be easily refinanced with another source.
  1. Has the stakeholder already been identified through another relationship? (required response: no.)
Example: a government department involved in planning and infrastructure listed both employees and unions as key stakeholders. But this amounted to double counting: the unions represented employees’ interests, and the organization’s primary relationship was with its employees.
Another way of determing stakeholders is to identify those who are directly impacted or indirectly affected by the company.
Example,directly impacted stakeholders are the organization team member and indirected affected may include an adjacent organization or members of a local community. Directly impacted stakeholders have greater influence than the indirectly affected.
Stakeholder management and engagement are arguably the most important ingrediant for a successful company.a company's manager depends on people to respond to the output and benefits that they deliver people will only respond if they are engage.
1.before aiming to engage and influence stakeholders, its very important to share information and to gather information about your stakeholder.
2.regular consultation is essential to ensure that requirement are agreed and a delivery solution is negotiated that is acceptable to the majority of stakeholder understanding the stakeholders behaviour, you can assess if there is a bitter way to work together to maintain a productive relationship.
4.a more concentious and meature approach to stakeholders engagement is essential
5.relationship are key element to improve, trust and confidence.
6.taking simple and timely actions with stakeholders can significantly improve a company.
7.treated as potential source of risk and opportunity.
8.initial step to establish the most acceptable baseline across a set of stakeholders delivering expectation and priorities. establish what your stakeholder community perceives sucess to be for them in the context of company
10.take responsibility.

4.ow to implement CSR, what to remember when implementing CSR
The process of implementing csr is given below :
♦conduct a csr assessment :
The first step is together, analyse,and examine all relevant information about the company's services, products,activities and decision making process in relation to its activities.
♦develop a csr strategy :
A company must take strategy to support a company's business objectives,to reduce operating cost, to enhance relationship with key stakeholder and customer.
♦develop csr commitsment:
Csr is the commitment of the business community to act ethically and contribute to economic development while respecting the environment enhancing quality of life for employees and theur fammilies.
♦implement csr commitment:
In this step all the commitment which are taken by company should be implemented.
♦verify and report on progress:
After implementing csr commitment, it should be verified whether it's dine on the basis of commitment and make report on the basis of progression.
The things which can be remember when implementing csr:
♣incorporate csr into corporate:
Csr should be one of the key elements that help with formulating your mission and values.
♣summarize the current csr activities:
  • Disclose existing and potential csr activities
  • Creat draft summary of csr activities
  • Make a list of activities and open it to your peer and employees to discuss
  • Make a list of issues,think about activities that can help you slove the problems
  • Be aware of expectation which your sorroundings await from you.
  ♣plan realistically!:
Don't start with many activities, go stop by step that means at first choose one activity and if you perceive add more.
♣engage employees:tell all your employees, explain where the concept of csr came from, what do you expect and how it is going to affect them. Without their support, you run the risk of delays or even complete failure of your plan.
Find supporters of csr issues among your employees and involve them into the planning to make them more interested in future results and outcomes.
To support motivation, enthusiasm and pride of your employees, celebrate every achievement of the implementation of csr.
♣select the right people!:
Effectively implementing csr means involving it to your casual, everyday business activities. A smaller company is probably not able to hire a csr specialist, but you cannot overload the existing employees neither. Consider the workload and try to find an employee who seems to be zealous about csr and does not feel overwhelmed by his own work. Communicate with him and motivate him frequently, because it may easily happen that his initial enthusiasm would wore off by the time.
♣perform ongoing evaluation!:
Assign another employee to carry out a regular csr activities. Involving more employees in the process of evaluation, you might get more valuable opinions. Results of the periodic evaluations should show progress – then it is clear that you have chosen the right path. If csr activities are stagnating, it is necessary to rethink and change the strategy.
♣inform the public!:
Implementation of csr is a benefit in itself, but it is necessary to provide the information to the community around your company. Communicate csr in corporate responsibility reports, websites, product packaging and leaflets. You will achieve more when you let your csr activities be known!
  1. Why itsnecessary  for  companies to learn about CSR activities?
Corporate social responsibility  is a form of corporate self-regulation integrated into a business model. Csr policy functions as a self-regulatory mechanism whereby a business monitors and ensures its active compliance with the spirit of the law, ethical standards and national or international norms.
The  necessity of corporate social responsibility  for companies
      the  current consumer climate doesn’t allow for companies to simply be in business for the sake of making a profit. While consumers may rely on corporations for goods and services, the level of competition allows customers to make decisions based on how much good a corporation is doing outside of the workplace and how they are positively impacting their community.
Public  image
     a corporation’s public image is at the mercy of it’s social responsibility programs.
For example, if a company is heavily involved in the practice of donating funds or goods to local nonprofit organizations and schools, consumers are more likely to use their product. Or if a corporation takes great care to ensure the materials used in its products are environmentally safe and the process is sustainable, this goes a long way in the eye of the public.
 we should remember that consumers feel good shopping at institutions that help the community. And that’s good for business!
Media  visiability
The  amount of positive media coverage a corporation receives can have a significant impact on the company’s bottom line. How much good a company does in its community or beyond reflects its corporate social responsibility values. And the more positive the benefits to the community, the more media coverage a company will likely receive.
     on the other hand, the media will often also cover corporations that participate in production or activities resulting in negative community impact. Media visibility is only useful when it sheds a positive light on organganization.
Positive  workplace  environment
It’s just common sense – employees like working for a company that has a good public image and is constantly in the media for positive reasons. Happy employees almost always equals positive output.
Boosting. Employees  engagement
When companies show that they are dedicated to improving their communities through corporate giving programs , they are more likely to attract and retain valuable, hardworking, and engaged employees.
Attacting and retaining investors
Investors who are pouring money into companies want to know that their funds are being used properly.not only does this mean that corporations must have sound business plans and budgets, but it also means that they should have a strong sense of corporate social responsibility.
When companies donate money to nonprofit organizations and encourage their employees to volunteer their time, they demonstrate to investors that they don’t just care about profits.instead, they show that they have an interest in the local and global community.
   investors are more likely to be attracted to and continue to support companies that demonstrate a commitment not only to employees and customers, but also to causes and organizations that impact the lives of others.
The ways that employees benifit from corporate social responsibility
Employees are also benifited from corporate social responsibility
Positive  workplace   environment
      when corporations exhibit philanthropic behavior, they are more likely to provide employees with a positive workplace. Consequently, employees feel engaged and productive when they walk into work each day.
Instilling a strong culture of corporate social responsibility within every employee from the top down will help to create a positive and productive environment where employees can thrive.
Corporations that care about the lives of people outside the walls of their businesses are more likely to create a positive environment.
Increase in  creativity
Employees who know that their employer is committed to bettering the local and global communities feel a stronger connection to the company. Because of this close relationship that employees share with their company, workers feel more inclined to be productive and creative.
Employers have identified creativity as one of the most important leadership qualities that an employee can possess. Creative employees enjoy working for companies that they can believe in and stand behind.
By incorporating comprehensive philanthropic programs, companies can help employees become more productive and creative.
 companies that maximize their social responsibility potential foster innovative and creative employees.
Encourage  professional. And personal  growth
When companies have a culture of corporate social responsibility, they can easily promote volunteerism to their employees and encourage them to donate to nonprofits.when employees contribute their time and money to worthy causes, they develop professionally and personally.
       by helping those in need and volunteering as teams, employees learn to work better together on important projects. Employees also experience a sense of pride when they know that they work for a company that cares about the community and encourages them to be passionate about worthy causes.
        employees are able to professionally and personally develop as a result of corporate social responsibility.
Promotes individual philantropy
   when employees notice that the company they work for is involved in charitable endeavors, they play follow the leader and begin to engage in their own philanthropic activities.
      if a company encourages group volunteerism and matches donations to nonprofits with a matching gift program, an employee is more likely to take advantage of those programs and become more individually philanthropically minded.
Without the strong sense of csr that a company should adopt, employees are less likely to branch out themselves and serve the community with monetary donations and volunteer efforts. Employees become more philanthropically aware when they are socially responsible
6.What are the tools of communicating corporate social. Activity???
The tools of communicating csr activities  are given below..
Strategy and vission -----understanding the company's objective for delivering csr and the way environmental and social issues intergrate with overall  business objectives..
                   contest --------- identifying the scope and framework for csr activities as they affect the company's business processes.
      operating model---- defining the way in which csr information will be delivered using people, technology and infrastructure.
      technology ----------- creating a steering group to facilitate the csr operating model  and establishing single point access to the service for customers and providers
            transformation ------during the initial trial period making process changes to and improvement of system delivery.
         communication --------- involving all company's  employee to make the new csr approach a success.
     culture change ----------communicating to those employees who will be helping to intergrate the new approach. Understanding the impact of this change on employees.
  1. 7.Define social responsibility, social responsiveness and social obligation and contrast among them.
Answer :

Social responsibility :  the obligation of a business to meet its economic and legal responsibility and nothing more.
Social responsiveness: when a firm engages in social actions in response to some popular social needs.
Social responsibility: a business's intention, beyond its legal and economic obligation, to do the right things and act in ways that are good for society.
Difference among  social  responsibility, social responsiveness  and social obligation are  given  bellow:
Topic.           Social responsibility        social responsiveness      social obligation
Social needs---                implicity                                  explicitly                           anticipatively
Institutional ----       defined by faculty                inspired from data.                   Defined with society
Educational----       community oriented.          Community based.                    Contextualized
Quality of-------  good perticipation          meeting criteria professionalism.      Health system
Graduates.                                                                                                                    Chance agents
Focus of------            process                           outcome                                             impact
Assessors ----       internal                              external                                             health partners
  1. Question: the relationship between an organization's social involvement and its economic performance
The relationship between corporate social responsibility (csr) and corporate financial performance (cfp) has been subject to extensive empirical enquiry. Yet the body of evidence that has accumulated about the nature of the relationship is equivocal. A commonly identified reason for the diverse and contradictory results is measurement issues pertaining to both concepts of interest. This article aims to review alternative operationalization’s and measurement approaches for the csr and cfp concepts that have been deployed in empirical literature concerned with the csr–cfp relationship. Several findings emanate from our study. First, csr operationalisations in empirical literature range from multidimensional to one-dimensional. Second, csr measurement approaches include reputation indices, content analyses, questionnaire-based surveys and one-dimensional measures, whereas cfp measurement approaches include accounting-based measures, market-based measures and combined measures. Third, no csr measurement approach is without drawbacks. In addition to approach specific drawbacks, two problems inherent in most approaches are researcher subjectivity and selection bias that may influence the nature of csr–cfp relationship detected in empirical literature. Finally, potential pathways to remedy these drawbacks are suggested.
Corporate social responsibility (csr) was originally conceived as a way for corporations to have a positive impact on their employees, stakeholders, communities and the world. While some notable organizations still take those earnest intentions to heart -- and many more should, given notable directives like that from blackrock -- others have used it more as a reputation builder than as a change maker.
But times have changed, and communications strategies must respond through authenticity. Today,
Customers and employees are speaking with their values as well as their wallets. They still care about cool features and great customer service, but they also care about what matters.
Trust is at stake for every organization. We have fake news to go with our alternative facts. The pressure for clear communications from trusted spokespeople can be intense. A byproduct of this environment is the reinsertion of businesses into the discourse on political, environmental and social issues. As i co-wrote last year, businesses have become the new battleground states.
The call for csr
Engaging in these weighty issues can seem tricky and even risky. Brands must stand for something because consumers demand it, but they must also live it. Nielsen recently published its annual global corporate sustainability report , which states that 66% of consumers will choose to spend more money on a product from a sustainable brand. Not only that, it is expected by 81% of millennials that their favorite companies have identified values. It’s not as treacherous as it sounds. If organizations use their values and principles as beacons, everything can flow smoothly from there.
Blackrock ceo laurence fink, for example, whose firm manages $6 trillion in investments, recently informed leaders that they need to do better -- doing well in business means they also must do well in society. According to the new york times, in a letter fink wrote to other executives, he said, “to prosper over time, every company must not only deliver financial performance, but also show how it makes a positive contribution to society.”
Google created a $4 million humanitarian fund (their largest to date), in response to president trump’s immigration order, so they could help free travelers who had been detained at u.s. airports. Google’s ceo, of indian descent, spoke out against the cruelty of the order, citing its effect on recruiting talent and on current employees and their families, as many of google’s staff hail from the banned muslim countries. Other tech giants followed suit .
Patagonia is one of the most aggressive examples i’ve seen of a company that takes its values seriously and uses its influence politically. When the government reduced the size of protected land, the outdoor apparel retailer took it as a direct attack on its mission and passion. They boldly used their website to educate and encourage customers to have a voice in the conversation.
The typical pathways to become part of the csr team
In this day and age, running a business is not just about making money. Companies are becoming increasingly keen to make sure that their practices, processes, products and procedures are ethical, sustainable and environmentally friendly. Consequently, many businesses now have dedicated corporate social responsibility (csr) teams.
Admittedly, this commitment to corporate social responsibility is not purely for philanthropic reasons. An impressive csr strategy can enhance a company’s reputation and thus maximize its profitability. If you want a career which involves community and environmental work with a business twist, then maybe a career in corporate social responsibility could be right up your street.

What jobs are available in corporate social responsibility?
Increased public demand for sustainable, ethical and environmentally-friendly business practices has necessitated the rise of csr. Major companies, such as kpmg and addleshaw goddard, now employ entire teams of corporate social responsibility professionals.
These guys have strategic responsibility to manage, coordinate and publicize a range of activities and initiatives that aim to reduce their company’s environmental impact, help with the development of local communities and make charitable donations.
Csr initiatives are excellent tools for refining a company’s brand identity. If they are publicised effectively they can make the company more attractive and reputable in a variety of ways. For instance, a fantastic backbone of corporate social responsibility can help the recruitment process by attracting the best candidates.
Furthermore, it can enhance a company’s customer appeal and actively reduce outgoings by helping the organisation to cut down on its consumption and waste of valuable resources.
If you work in this area, you will gain fantastic job satisfaction in two ways. Firstly, your work will actively be helping the environment and local communities. Secondly, you will be helping your company to thrive and gain an edge over its competitors.

What does csr involve?
Essentially, csr careers are all about:
If you work on the strategy side of things, you might be conducting research into environmental issues and analysing your company’s current practices to combat them. You will then be devising ways of improving current processes, getting actively involved in corporate policy-making and then deciding how best to integrate these strategic visions into current business activities with minimal interruption.
Additionally, you might play an integral role in deciding which charities to support and which community development schemes and volunteering programmes your company’s employees will get involved with.
Strategy is one thing, but the initiatives that are devised by the csr team also need to be implemented and coordinated effectively. If you focus your efforts on this side of proceedings, you might be arranging environmental audits of your existing suppliers; you could be going out into the community and actively setting up volunteering programmes; or you may be commissioning environmental consultants to carry out assessments of your company’s site.
Moreover, part of your job would involve liaising with potential suppliers, assessing their suitability and selecting the ones which fit in with your organization’s values and ethical standards. For instance, you might only be dealing with fairtrade companies.
If you choose to get involved with the publicity side of csr, you will be responsible for making sure the whole world knows about your company’s efforts. You would be using your excellent pr and marketing skills to make sure that all initiatives are widely-publicised and covered in the press. You will also be integral to deciding which community events to sponsor and which charities your organisation should be working in partnership with.
Your career in csr will entirely depend on your specific employer. For instance, in some major companies you might solely be working on publicity. However, in other organisations, you might be getting involved with strategy, implementation and publicity.
There is no standard entry-route into this line of work. However, the majority of organisations will require you to have a decent degree, commercial awareness and a strong passion for the environment, community work and sustainability.
  1. pathways for getting started in a career of corporate social responsibility
One of the things i enjoy best about working in the field of CSR is that i encounter people with a wide diversity of backgrounds and expertise. Some come from a traditional business background, some are attorneys by training, and others come from the NGO or international development world. This variety in backgrounds and interests makes for some very interesting discussions and leads to innovative partnerships and projects, but it can make it difficult for those trying to identify a “CSR career path”
  1. Do your homework – “CSR” is a broad term and can mean very different things from one company to the next. You should learn as much as you can about different companies, industries, and practitioners’ day-to-day work. This will help you focus on the types of roles you will truly be interested in and those where you can contribute to the company’s goals.
  2. Network – when i was transitioning into a csr career, i spent the second year of my mba program doing as many informational interviews as i could. I leveraged the net impact network and learned about opportunities through my own curiosity and eagerness to learn more.
  3. Look for non-traditional opportunities – when i joined gap inc. In my first csr role, i took an internship even though i was looking for a full-time role. What was designed as a three-month opportunity turned into a four-year stint.
  4. Pitch – if you identify a body of work that can help a company advance its csr goals, don’t be afraid to propose a project or a role that you are uniquely qualified for. Let a company’s csr manager know how you can help him/her be successful and develop a project to work on.
  • Although it may seem frustrating to be searching for a role in a field with few opportunities, don’t lose hope! When i look at the private sector today, there are so many more csr roles than when i first started in this field. Csr is an area in which companies continue to invest, so more and more opportunities present themselves every day.
CSR staff recruitment
As more and more companies are adopting corporate social responsibility (csr) into their core competencies, job candidates have become more socially selective throughout their career search. A company's csr strategy is a big factor in where today's top talent chooses to work. Most candidates, especially millennials, place heavy emphasis on an organization's reputation and commitment to the community and want to ensure that their future employer engages in corporate citizenship practices that align with their own values.
The most socially conscious generation, millennials, will make up the majority of the workforce within the next decade, and they prefer to work for forward-thinking, sustainable businesses. Most millennials donate to charities and actively volunteer or are members of community organizations. Companies would be remiss to not emphasize their csr achievements when recruiting for the future workplace. In order to recruit successfully, companies need to actively identify csr activities that will resonate with the increasingly younger, more socially responsible candidate pool.
Establishing a connection between a company's csr policies and recruiting can lead to significant talent acquisition gains. Fortunately, there are certain ways to incorporate a company's corporate citizenship results into employee recruitment practices.
Showcase csr: it is important to have csr information visible on a company's website—which is usually the first place potential candidates look when researching an organization. Millennials also use social media more than any other generation, so posting current csr efforts on linkedin, twitter, facebook, and instagram is crucial. To help expose candidates to positive corporate programs, promote articles, awards, and policies and post images and videos featuring current employees participating in corporate citizenship activities.
Sell csr: it is crucial for recruiters to sell a company's csr initiatives to job candidates. Companies must ensure that their recruiters are well-versed on csr initiatives and are capable of conveying those practices to job candidates. All recruiting staff need to undergo training sessions on csr and be consistently refreshed on the importance of how this single element can attract top talent.
Create a csr culture: instead of having csr become a small addition to who the company is as an entity, allow it to become ingrained into the company's culture. Companies can reveal their organizational values and beliefs through demonstrating the impact they have on the community—which will influence future talent's perception of their culture and brand. Building empathy, collaborating on charitable projects, and connecting to those in need can offer employees valuable business lessons and help create a strong corporate culture. Candidates want to become part of a culture of high employee engagement, socially responsible practices, and community mindedness.
In addition to the invaluable benefit of serving society, csr can clearly be used as a unique tool for employee recruitment. Companies can easily breed a csr-rich employee family since candidates who are passionate about corporate citizenship during the hiring process are likely to become actively involved in those same activities once hired. But how can companies be sure they are hiring the right talent? One of the most important keys to hiring success is using pre-employment assessments. The zerorisk hiring system blends a revolutionary science with state-of-the-art technology to reduce unwanted employee turnover, improve employee performance, and manage human capital. We can objectively measuring your candidate's value structure and emotional intelligence competencies, which can even shed light onto their thinking and biases regarding csr. Recruiters and hiring managers can compare each candidate to the value patterns and emotional intelligence competencies of top performers to determine the candidate's likelihood of success

10.question: are there professional development opportunities for csr personnel related to aid and development work? Explain
It can be difficult for the company to swallow the costs associated with csr personnel professional development, but ultimately the company benefits when its personnel have the capacity to embrace change and innovate.
The question as to are there professional development opportunities for csr personnel related to aid and development work? Is an easy one to answer; it is yes.
There are some professional development opportunities of csr personnel which is explained below-
Ø  They learn how to increase organizational citizenship behaviors and improve employee relationships by working in the company.
Ø  Thy learn how to enhance employee identification with the organization by working in the organization.
Ø  They learn how to improve retention and organizational commitment through feeling positively about their organization’s csr initiative which has been shown to increase employee’s intentions to stay with their current employer, and their overall commitment to the organization.
Ø  Increase betterment of employee engagement and performance employees have also been shown to bemore engaged and to perform better when they feel good about their company’s csr involvement.
Finally, csr can increase employees’ creative involvement, including generating new but practical ideas, originality, and creative problem-solving. When organizations express their values and passions through csr, employees may be inspired to develop new and better ways to do their work.
So we can say that there are huge professional development opportunities for csr personnel related to aid and development work.

11.what do you mean by "greening of management " relate the approaches to being green to the concept of social obligation, social responsibility, and social responsiveness
Concept of greening management:
The confession by the companies that there is close relation between an organization's decisions and its actions has consequences on the natural environment is referred as greening of management.
Previously the organizations did not paid much attention to the environment which is affecting by their activities. There were too small groups who showed their concerns in protecting the environmental and natural resources. There are many manufacturing factories that are adding damage to the natural environment for the sake of getting huge money and getting rich in one night. They have no attention for the environment. This awareness is aroused by some environmental protection group who were so concerned about environment and they highlighted in the media for the protection of environment so the companies started to pay attention in cleaning and safer environment.
As a result managers are now involved in greening of management. Greening of management adheres to all safety measures for man and environment. It involves an integrated effort to consider environment concerns. Management is effective only when it is adaptive to change in the external world. The 21st century has ushered in the need to identify and deal with global environment issues. They are no more concerned for 'someone else'. The greening of management is concerned with companies embracing environmental protection as part of their competitive business  strategies. The concept is fast growing up and is being widely accepted by concerned organizations and individuals.
Those who accept and implement greening of management, ensure that the actions of all the members of their staff and the operations conducted within the business are within the rules and regulations laid down by authorities for the protection of the immediate environment. Businesses today need to be able to recognize the close relation between organizations decisions and its impact on the natural environment.
Approaches of being green:
One model of environmental responsibility uses the term shades of green to
Describe the different approaches that organization may take. Approaches are:
Legal approach (light green)
Market approach
Stakeholder approach
Activist approach (dark green)
Legal approach:
The first approach is the legal or light green approach that is simply doing what is required legally. Under this approach organizations show little environmental sensitivity. They obey laws, rules and regulations willingly and even try to use the law to their own advantage. This approach is a good illustration of social obligation. These organizations simply follow their legal obligations to prevent pollution and protect environment. For example, many durable product manufacturers and oil refiners have taken the legal approach and comply with relevant rules & regulations but go no further.
  1. Market approach:
As an organization become more sensitive to environmental issues, it may adopt the market approach, where it responds to the environmental preferences of its customers. Whatever customers demand in term of environmentally friendly product will be what the organization provides. For example dupont developed a new type of herbicide that helped farmers around the world reduce their annual use of chemical by more than 45 million pounds. Bu developing this product the company was responding to the demands of its customers who wanted to minimize the use of chemical on their crops. This approach is a good illustration of social responsiveness.
  1. Stakeholder approach:
Another approach is stakeholder approach. Under this approach the organization works to meet the environmental demands of its multiple stakeholders such as suppliers, employees or the community. Stakeholder approach is also an illustration of social responsiveness. For example an organization may decide that it is a necessary requirement that the employees should be ensures the health & welfare so that they become more satisfy. In this way an organization leads to be more responsive to its employees comparatively to its profit.
  1. Activist approach:
When an organization look the ways to respect and preserve the earth and its
Natural resources than it said to be following activist approach. The activist approach exhibits the highest degree of environmental sensitivity and is a good illustration of social responsibility. Hanger‟s cleaners use a pollution free process to clean cloths. Whirlpool won an industry competition and $30 million prize for developing cfc high efficiency refrigerator (cfc is abbreviation of chlorofluorocarbons linked to the degradation of ozone layer around the earth). So all these industries have adapted activist approach which is also called dark green approach. By taking these approaches managers and organizations can protect & preserve the natural environment and society.
What manager or organization do for greening management:
Organization and mangers can do many things to protect and preserve the natural environment. Some do more than what is required by law that is that is they fulfill their social obligation. However, others have made radical changes to make their products and production processor cleaner. For examples- carpet-maker shaw industries of dalton, georgia, transfer its carpet and wood manufacturing waste into energy. One of the largest oil company is clearing up and greening up by implementing tough new rules and regulation on oil tanker safety and working with gropes such as global witness and green place. Ups the world largest delivery package company, has done numerous things from retrofitting its aircraft with advance technology and fuel efficient engines to developing a powerful computer network to efficient dispatch its fleet of brown trucks and using alternative fuel to run them.
12.explain the relationship of value based management
In most organizations, it activities typically ‘belong’ to an organization of it professionals, while business value is realized in the “business of the business.” Yes, i know that many it professionals protest that they are “part of the business.” While this is a noble position to take, and an appropriate aspiration, it is generally not the reality seen by those in line profit and loss positions.
We are seeing the emergence and formalization of the business relationship management (brm) role — a hybrid of business line professional and it professional — with the emphasis on
Business. Primarily intended as a means of bridging between it organizations and their business partners, and better linking it costs with business value, the brm role comes in many variations. From a relatively tactical and operational focus to one more strategically and business value focused.
From my experience, the brm role is more sustainable and has a greater positive impact on business value realization when it is strategically focused. That said, if it supply maturity is low , then the tactical and operationally-focused brm provides an essential foundation on which to build the more value-based roles and capabilities.
Relationships through activities
We all have many types of relationships, from casual and informal to intimate and formal. These relationships are instantiated and developed through activities — posting status to a social media site, celebrating an anniversary, asking for a raise, etc.
In the case of the brm and her business relationships, activities can be categorized into two major types:
  1. Relationship-centric activities — activities that depend upon the ‘customer-intimate’ nature of the brm-business relationship — things that could not be achieved effectively without that relationship.
  2. Process-centric activities — activities that depend upon robust processes, such as project management, program management, service management and those associated with process frameworks such as itil and cobit.
Relationship activity classifications
Relationship-centric activities
Demand shaping — identifying, surfacing and assessing possibilities for using it services and capabilities. Includes strategy formulation, business/technology research, consulting, and raising business savvy about business value realization through technology.
Communication — proactively informing key stakeholders about things they need to know, and being informed by key stakeholders about things it needs to know.
It leadership — it leadership team meetings, leading or participating in key internal it initiatives (e.g., process improvement, transformation).
Vendor management — working with external vendors and service providers.
Education and training — time spent in formal training (not in training others).
Process-centric activities
Business support — responding to requests, supporting day-to-day needs associated with “running the business” and the it capabilities that support it. These activities tend to be reactive and largely unplanned, and while necessary, often create little new business value. They exist due to it service management
Service management — a key input to service management regarding service strategy, design, delivery, operations, or improvement.
Project support — activities associated with specific business-it projects (funded initiatives). Effective project management processes should reduce the amount of project support needed from brms.
Administration and professional development — activities such resource management, time recording, professional development of others (supervision, coaching, training others, performance management).
From activities to time allocation
I recently conducted a small research project on brm time allocation — i wanted to find out where brms spend their time, and where they believe they should be spending their time.
13.what do you mean by ethics? What are the four views of ethics?
Ethics is the basic concepts and fundamental principles of decent human conduct. It includes study of universal values such as the essential equality of all men and women, human or natural rights, obedience to the law of land, concern for health and safety and, increasingly, also for the natural environment.
There are four views of ethics in influencing a manager's ethical decision for the best of the company that is the utilitarian view, rights view, theory of justice and lastly integrative social contracts theory. That is described below,
Utilitarian view of ethics: most of the company will choose to use this view because it does not contradict with such business goals as efficiency, productivity and gives high profits. It is defined as a means of making decisions based on what is good for the greatest number. In other words, it only concern on the majority people who are benefiting from the decision rather than the minority people who are affected by the decision. Ethics uses quantitative method like calculating the costs and benefits of the decision made in decision-making. This concept is suitable for companies who are concern on the outcome for the greatest number, which is best for the company as a whole. To illustrate this view more clearly, we look at the decision-making on the production of the new ford car, pinto in the 1960s where the ford managers had to decide whether to impose the lowest cost and the greatest benefits would be to leave the design to be unchanged. They finally decided to go ahead with the current design. One of the reasons is because of the cost and benefit calculation as they calculated that the costs of preventing losses are lower than the costs of changing the design of the new car. Therefore, this view encourages efficiency, productivity and consistent with the goal of profit maximisation as in the case of the ford managers. However, some of the benefits and cost of the action are not reliable and it ignores the rights of some stakeholders. In this case, the ford managers did not take into account on how many people who suffers when they bought the car and had an accident.
Rights view of ethics: it is a decision that best maintain and protects the fundamental rights and privileges of the people affected by it. It means that this concept ensure that the companies employees are always protected in rights to privacy, free speech, free consent, health and safety, and freedom of conscience . For example, in the case of coca-cola executives and the guatemalan union leaders in may 1984, the workers argued that for the past six years, the company refuse to obey the human rights and the labour rights. Moreover, the union organiser are receiving treat like kidnapping, murder and others around the area.
This indicates that the unions are arguing for their rights in the company. The company had to no choice to settle this problem immediately. The benefit of this view is that it provides individuals with equity in the free pursuit of interest . Moreover, it also provides a basis for justifying one’s action and for invoking the protection or aid of others. On the other hand, companies will face problems on productivity and efficiency because they are more concern on their employee’s performance rather than the outcome of the company.
Theory of justice: it is based on the belief that ethical decisions treat people impartially and fairly, according to legal rules and standards. This concept concern on how equal the ethical decision of the manager for everyone. To illustrate this concept, we look at the case of u-haul and james horner where horner, a manager in u-haul claimed for his overtime pay. The company claimed that horner is a manager and therefore no need to receive the overtime pay. However, horner belief that the company’s action is unfair for him as he does the same work as what the others do but the only thing different is that he is a manager and they are not. Therefore, he should get the overtime pay as what the other worker gets. The benefit of the concept is, it recognized the standard of fairness on the individuals and protects the interest of stakeholders. Despite of the facts, it reduces employee’s risk-taking, innovation and productivity.
 integrative social contracts theory: it is a newer approach that proposes that decision should be based on empirical (what is) and normative (what should be) factor. The benefits and drawbacks are determined by the manager’s decision on what is right or wrong. This is because the decision of the managers are determined solely on what he or she thinks is right or wrong for the company although it brings a disadvantage for their workers and others. For example in the case of levi-strauss in the early 1990, the company found out that two of their suppliers in bangladesh, uses children below fourteen years old as their worker.
This matter is common in bangladesh because their salaries are cheap and they are forced work for longer hours. As a result, the children ignored their education and chooses to work to support their family’s financial problem as most of them come from a low-income family. Thus, producer in bangladesh can cut their cost of production and sell for cheaper price in the market. However, this practice violates the company’s principles. Since then, levi-strauss is willing to pay for the children’s education expenses and promised them to provide them a job as they reach the age of fourteen years old. This is a good example of the decision makers to the society.
  1. what is code of ethics? How their effectiveness can be improved?
Code of ethics: a written set of guidelines issued by an organization to its workers and management to help them conduct their actions in accordance whit its primary values and ethical standard.
Use example:
If you have questions regarding your behavior at work, please consult the” code of ethics” for guidance in these manner.
Make sure that everyone follows your “code of ethics” should keep your business running smoothly  as it can with limited problem.
We can improve the effectiveness of code of ethics by providing effective ethical training to its workforce and ensure employees adhere with ethical behavior and compliance policies.
Here are some tips to foster an effective ethical training in organization.
1.develop a code of ethics: the preliminary step to promote ethical behavior among employee is by establishing a code of ethics.the code of ethics provide the direction and guidelines for employees ethical behavior. It also helps employees understand the organizations ethical expectations and rules.
2.make managers role models: in ethical training ,designating managers as role models is another way of promoting ethical behavior .for this purpose ,managers need to be chosen with care and due consideration. This will be beneficial in the following ways.
*employees will have a guiding force to improve ethical behavior.
*if managers themselves strictly adhere to ethical standard , employees will feel less reluctant to oppose the guidelines laid out of ethical behavior.
3.disciplinary actions for unethical behavior: the management needs to lay down disciplinary actions that will be taken against employees found guilty of violating the rules .if the management promote sales at all cost ; employee might resort to any means to achive their targets.
4.reward  for ethical behavior: after the completion of the ethical training program, an employee can be rewarded for positive behavior ,so that the employee will not only continue to adhere to the ethical practices but also be an inspiration to his colleagues.
Therefore ,it is important that employers identify and reward employees who stick to ethical practices, despite tempting situation.
Ultimately , it is the responsibility of the management to deliver an effective ethical training to its workforce to reduce wastage of time and money and ensure improvement in employees moral and productivity of the organization
15.describe the importance roles managers play in encouraging ethical behavior?
a good manager plays an important role to encourage his/her employees .a good manager belief that ethical employees make for a ethical company, which will receive many benefits from its good reputation. Not only does in attract  more customers ,an ethical company will also be able to entices and retain a more skilled workforce.
Here, these are the important role managers play to encourage ethical behavior…..
*analyze your current work environment and the existing company values, mission, goals and ethical policies. Not any misleading wording or failure to communicate company initiatives to each employee, including new hires.
*solicit the input of each employee about an ethical issues, she/he feels or that others may face. Your employee will be more likely to adhere to a policy she/he helped create in some way.
She /he is also likely to be pleased you are concerned about the ethical work environment because ethical companies are better able to create for needs of their employees.
*gain the support of top management to reward any unclear goals and to add or develop an ethics program in your company based on the feedback you get from your workforce and your own careful research into common ethical issues in your industry study other organizations as example.
*provide ethical training in the form of employees responding t hypothetical situations that may arise or scenarious you know take place in other companies. Many employees don’t understand which activities are unethical because certain practices become standard in workplace and get ingrained in the culture.
*clearly define the repercussions for wrongdoing .not only should they be explained during ethics training and employee evaluation ,but these policies should clearly be posted on the company’s intranet or in the break room.
*provide a hotline or other anonymous reporting system that will help employees communicate breaches of your ethics plan. An employee is more likely to say something if he /she knows there is an established, easy way for him to report something.
*provide encouragement and protection to any employee who comes forth to report wrongdoing in person. Workers may have a tendency to look down on employees who “tell on” coworkers, however, the accurate, well intentioned reporting of unethical behavior should be supported.
*set up ongoing workshops and mediatory meeting that discuss emerging ethical issues. Not only should leaders train workers about new problem ,managers should also solicit continual feedback and ideas from the workforce. Your environment can change without a moment’s notices so it is important for employees to be able to communicate these changes as well as get up-to –date information on how to behave. A worker can only follow the policies she/he knows and she /he will be more encourage if she /he has a clear understanding to the company’s wishes.

Finally, We hope that this article helped you to know about Social Responsibility and Managerial Ethics. you may find helpful our other articles.

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